Evaluation of Fluoride release from orthodontic acrylic resin by using two different polymerizations techniques: An InVitro Study


  • Diyar B. Sabir Department of Pedodontics, Orthodontics and Preventive Dentistry (M.Sc. student) , College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University.
  • Zana Q. Omer Department of Pedodontics, Orthodontics and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University.




Orthocryle, auto polymerization, IVOMAT, sodium fluoride, fluoride release


Background and objectives: Oral hygiene is mandatory for patients with orthodontic appliances and prevention of microbial biofilms in the oral environment. One method for inhibiting the growth of micro-organisms is commonly by use fluoridated dental material. The aim of this study was to evaluate releasing fluoride after addition into the orthodontic acrylic resin with 40% hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and amount of fluoride release from the orthodontic acrylic resin that was polymerized by Auto polymerization and IVOMAT polymerization.

Materials and methods: Sixty disc-shaped samples measured 10 mm diameter and 1mm thickness of orthocryle were divided into two groups according to polymerization technics, thirty samples for Auto polymerization and thirty samples for polymerization by IVOMAT. Each of these groups was subdivided into three groups according to the concentration of NaF. Group A 0% NaF, Group B 10%NaF, and Group C 20%NaF. For testing fluoride release, samples stored for 28 days in deionized distilled water for testing measurements for days 1,4,7,14,21, and day 28. Precision ion meter was used to measure fluoride release. Repeated measure ANOVA was undertaken to compare fluoride release in each group. Paired sample t-test was utilized to differentiate between groups.

Results: Significant difference was observed in the fluoride-releasing of both groups and within the subgroups (P≤0.05). The highest amount of fluoride release is present in 20% NaF followed by 10% NaF for Auto polymerized acrylic resin in the first day. The lowest fluoride release is presented in 10% on day 28 for IVOMAT polymerization. In general, the Auto polymerized acrylic resin had higher fluoride release than IVOMAT from all groups for 0%,10% and 20% NaF.

Conclusion: Orthodontic acrylic resin has the ability to release fluoride more than 28 days for both types of polymerization technics in different concentrations.


Alhuwaizi A, Rasheed A. Assessment of orthodontic treatment needs of Iraqi Kurdish teenagers using the Dental Aesthetic Index. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 2009;15(6):1535-41.

Rashid A. Influence of Different Concentrations of Fluoride on The Porosity of Acrylic Resin Denture Base Materials. Iraqi Dental Journal 2015;37(2):56-61

Iça, R., Öztürk, F., Ates, B., Malkoc, M. and Kelestemur, Ü. Level of residual monomer released from orthodontic acrylic materials. The Angle Orthodontist2014; 84(5):862-7.

Gad, M., Fouda, S., Al-Harbi, F., Näpänkangas, R. and Raustia, A. PMMA denture base material enhancement: a review of fiber, filler, and nanofiller addition. International Journal of Nanomedicine 2017;12:.3801-12.

Batoni G, Pardini M, Giannotti A, Ota F, Rita Giuca M, Gabriele M et al. Effect of removable orthodontic appliances on oral colonization by mutans streptococci in children. European Journal of Oral Sciences 2001;109(6):388-92.

Kuroiwa A, Nomura Y, Ochiai T, Sudo T, Nomoto R, Hayakawa T et al. Antibacterial, Hydrophilic Effect and Mechanical Properties of Orthodontic Resin Coated with UV-Responsive Photocatalyst. Materials 2018;11(6):889.

Baehni P, Takeuchi Y. Anti-plaque agents in the prevention of biofilm-associated oral diseases. Oral Diseases. 2003;9(s1):23-29.

Liao, Y., Brandt, B., Li, J., Crielaard, W., Van Loveren, C. and Deng, D. Fluoride resistance in Streptococcus mutans: a mini review. Journal of Oral Microbiology 2017; 9(1):1-9

Pessan J, Al-Ibrahim N, Buzalaf M, Toumba K. Slow-release fluoride devices: a literature review. Journal of Applied Oral Science 2008;16(4):238-44.

Kamijo K, Mukai Y, Tominaga T, Iwaya I, Fujino F, Hirata Y et al. Fluoride release and recharge characteristics of denture base resins containing surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler. Dental Materials Journal 2009;28(2):227-33.

Wong M, Clarkson J, Glenny A, Lo E, Marinho V, Tsang B et al. Cochrane Reviews on the Benefits/Risks of Fluoride Toothpastes. Journal of Dental Research. 2011;90(5):573-79.

Ismail H. Further Development of a Novel Fluoride Releasing Acrylic Orthodontic Adhesive [Ph.D. thesis]. Newcastle University; 2016.

Zahroon, S. Development of a novel acrylic resin as a fissure sealant. [Ph.D. thesis] Newcastle University;2014.

Anusavice, K.J., Zhang, N.Z. and Shen, C. 'Effect of CaF2 Content on Rate of Fluoride Release from Filled Resins. Journal of Dental Research.2005; 84(5): 440-44

Mousavinasab SM, Meyers I. Fluoride Release by Glass Ionomer Cements, Compomer, and Giomer. Dental Research Journal 2009;6(2):75-81.

Khouw-Liu, V.H.W., Anstice, H.M. and Pearson, G.J. An in vitro investigation of a poly (vinyl phosphonic acid) based cement with four conventional glass-ionomer types of cement. Part 1: flexural strength and fluoride release. Journal of Dentistry.1999; 27(5):351-7.

Selimović-Dragaš M, Hasić-Branković L, Korać F, Đapo N, Huseinbegović A, Kobašlija S, et al. In vitro fluoride release from a different kind of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. 2013;13(3):197-02

Prapansilp W, Rirattanapong P, Surarit R, Vongsavan K. Fluoride Release from Different Powder Liquid Ratios of Fuji VII. M Dent J. 2017;37(21):217-22.

Srithongsuk S, Anuwongnukroh N, Dechkunakorn S, Srikhirin T, Tua-Ngam P. Investigation of Fluoride Release from Orthodontic Acrylic Plate. Advanced Materials Research 2011;378-379:681-7.

Upadhyay S, Rao A, Shenoy R. Comparison of the Amount of Fluoride Release from Nanofilled Resin Modified Glass Ionomer, Conventional and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cements. Journal of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. 2013;10(2):134-40.

Nakajo, K., Imazato, S., Takahashi, Y., Kiba, W., Ebisu, S. and Takahashi, N. 'Fluoride released from glass-ionomer cement is responsible to inhibit the acid production of caries-related oral streptococci. Dental Materials. 2009; 25(6), 703-08.

Dionysopoulos, D., Koliniotou-Koumpia, E., Helvatzoglou-Antoniades, M. and Kotsanos, N. 'Fluoride release and recharge abilities of contemporary fluoride-containing restorative materials and dental adhesives', Dental Materials Journal. 2013; 32(2). 296-304.

Yan Z, Sidhu S, Mahmoud G, Carrick T, McCabe J. Effects of Temperature on the Fluoride Release and Recharging Ability of Glass Ionomers. Operative Dentistry. 2007;32(2):138-43.

Madhyastha P, Kotian R, Pai V, Khader A. Fluoride Release from Glass-Ionomer Cements: Effect of Temperature, Time Interval, and Storage Condition. Journal of Contemporary Dentistry. 2013; 3:68-73.

Pathak A, Sharma D. Biofilm Associated Microorganisms on Removable Oral Orthodontic Appliances in Children in the Mixed Dentition. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry 2013;37(3):335-40.

Yassin s. A Fluoride Releasing Dental Prosthesis Copolymer for Oral Biofilm Control. Newcastle University. [Ph.D. thesis]. Newcastle University.; 2014.




How to Cite

Sabir DB, Omer ZQ. Evaluation of Fluoride release from orthodontic acrylic resin by using two different polymerizations techniques: An InVitro Study. EDJ [Internet]. 2019 Jun. 6 [cited 2024 Jul. 19];2(1):149-56. Available from: https://edj.hmu.edu.krd/index.php/journal/article/view/edj.2019.04



Original Articles