Perceptions of orthodontically treated smile esthetics: a comparative evaluation of orthodontists, general dentists, and laypersons in Erbil city.


  • Isra Dilshad Rostum Department of POP, College of Dentistry, Tishk University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Zana Omer Department of POP, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.



Smile, Smile Perception, Dental esthetic, Orthodontics, Mini-esthetics


Background and Objective: Knowing the perception of a layperson will help an orthodontist to have an idea about acceptable smiles in our community. The study is aimed to evaluate and compare the smile perception among orthodontists, general dentists, and laypersons in a sample of Erbil city.

Method: Groups of variations made on an orthodontically treated smile picture. The ideal smile picture was purposefully altered to produce thirty-two more images with eight common anterior esthetic discrepancies in varying degrees of deviation. Crown length, Crown width, Incisor crown angulation, Midline, Open gingival embrasure, Buccal corridor, Occlusal plane, and Gingiva to lip distance. A close-ended questionnaire is prepared. In this study, 235 individuals from three groups of varying educational levels served as evaluators: general dentists, orthodontists, and laypersons.

Results: There is a significant difference in perception between groups. The orthodontists were more sensitive than the other two groups. Laypersons could only detect variations in crown length, width, and angulation. General dentists were second most perceptive except for gingiva to lip distance and buccal corridor. One-way ANOVA is used for statistical analysis and the Post Hoc LSD test is used for significant ANOVA.

Conclusion: The result of this study showed that there was a significant difference among the three groups of evaluators. Laypersons have a higher threshold level of acceptance than dentists and orthodontists. The most sensitive in detecting variations were orthodontists followed by General dentists.    


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How to Cite

Rostum ID, Omer Z. Perceptions of orthodontically treated smile esthetics: a comparative evaluation of orthodontists, general dentists, and laypersons in Erbil city. EDJ [Internet]. 2023 Jun. 30 [cited 2024 Apr. 20];6(1):20-31. Available from:



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