Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a sample of medical students in Erbil city

  • Dilan Burhan Yousif College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Zana Qadir Omer Department of Pedodontics, Orthodontics and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
Keywords: College students, Anxiety, Helkimo index

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to find the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder by Helkimo anamnesis and clinical dysfunction index and to determine the degree of associations present between temporomandibular disorder and each of age, gender and
anxiety.
Methods: 230 students were randomly selected with the age group of 18-25 years, from all colleges of Hawler medical university, from March 2019 to June 2019. Data was collected through Helkimo anamnesis dysfunction index1, Helkimo clinical dysfunction index1
and generalized anxiety disorder 7-item scale2. The data were statistically analyzed by Descriptive statistics and chi square test.
Results: The most encountered symptoms reported by the students were joint sounds (27.4%) and joint fatigue (27.4%). (50%) of the students had some grade of temporomandibular disorder according to Helkimo anamnesis questionnaire (subjective temporomandibular disorder symptoms) and (57.4%) had some grade of temporomandibular disorder According to Helkimo clinical dysfunction index (objective temporomandibular disorder symptoms). The associations between temporomandibular disorder and each of age (P-value= 0.900), Gender (P -value= 0.221), and anxiety (P-value= 0.288) were statistically not significant by using Helkimo anamnesis questionnaire. Significant association was found between temporomandibular disorder and each of gender (P-value <0.001) and anxiety (P-value <0.001) by using Helkimo clinical dysfunction index.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder was high. The most common symptom reported by students were joint sounds and joint fatigue. According to Helkimo clinical dysfunction index temporomandibular disorder was more prevalent among females and those who had a degree of anxiety.

References

Helkimo M. Studies on function and dysfunction of the masticatory system II. lndex for anamnestic and clinical dysfunction and occlusal state. Swed. Dent. J. 1974. 67(2): 101-21.

Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Lowe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder. Arch Inern Med 2006; 166(10):1092-7.

Al-Ani Z, Gray R. TMD Current Concepts: 1. An Update. Dental Update 2007;34(5):278-88.

Cooper BC, Kleinberg I. Examination of a Large Patient Population for the Presence of Symptoms and Signs of Temporomandibular Disorders. Cranio® 2007;25(2):114-26.

Okeson JP. Management of Temporomandibular Disorders and Occlusion. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby; 2013.

Stallman HM. Psychological distress in university students: A comparison with general population data. Australian Psychologist 2010;45(4):249-57.

Grzywacz R., “Overview of the stress in the student group on the basis of own research,”Medycyna Rodzinna, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 36–43,

Abou-Atme Y. S., M. Melis, K. H. Zawawi, and L. Cottogno. Five-year follow-up of temporomandibular disorders and other musculoskeletal symptoms in dental students. Minerva stomatologica 2007;56(11-12): 603–9.

Liu F and A. Steinkeler. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of temporomandibular disorders. Dental Clinics of North America 2013; 57(3): 465-79.

Isong U, Gansky SA, Plesh O. Temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder-type pain in U.S. adults: the National Health Interview Survey. Journal of orofacial pain. 2008; 22(4):317–22.

Janal MN, Raphael KG, Nayak S, Klausner J. Prevalence of myofascial temporomandibular disorder in US community women. Journal of oral rehabilitation. 2008; 35(11):801–9.

Rani S, Pawah S, Gola S, Bakshi M. Analysis of Helkimo index for temporomandibular disorder diagnosis in the dental students of Faridabad city:

A cross-sectional study. The Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society 2017; 17(1): 48-52.

Moaleem MM, Okshah AMS, Al-Shahrani AA, Alshadidi AKAF, Shaabi FI, Mobark AH, et al. Prevalence and Severity of Temporomandibular Disorders among Undergraduate Medical Students in Association with Khat Chewing. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(1):1-6.

Alhussini D. Prevalence and Awareness of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders among Patients in King Abdulaziz University, Dental Hospital. Journal of Dental Health, Oral Disorders & Therapy 2017; 8(5): 1-6.

Al-Gadhaan SM, Khan P, Alqahtani S, Alsahrani B, Alqahtani B. Prevalence of TMJ disorders among the general population in southern region of kingdom of Saudi Arabia- a survey report from dental center of Afhsr. Med. Res. Chron. 2018; 5 (1): 36-42

Al Hayek S, Al-Thunayan M, AlGhaihab A, AlReshaid R, Omair A. Assessing stress associated with temporomandibular joint disorder through

Fonseca's an: 1-7. amnestic index among the Saudi physicians. Clinical and Experimental Dental Research 2018

Paduano S, Bucci R, Rongo R, Silva R, Michelotti A. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders and oral parafunctions in adolescents from public schools in Southern Italy. Cranio®. 2018:1-6.

Elyasi M, Majeed S, Elyassi M, Aziz A, Rashid K, Ali S, et al. Prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorder among Gulf Medical University students. Gulf Medical Journal 2016;5(S1):S123–S130.

Olivares H, Saucedo F, Nova A. Temporomandibular joint disorder prevalence in resident physicians at the Specialties Hospital «La Raza» National Medical Center. Revista Odontológica Mexicana 2016; 20(1): e8-e12.

Bilgiç F, Gelgör İ. Prevalence of Temporomandibular Dysfunction and its Association with Malocclusion in Children: An Epidemiologic Study. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry 2017; 41(2): 161-5.

Bagis B, Ayaz E, Turgut S, Durkan R, Özcan M. Gender Difference in Prevalence of Signs and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders:

A Retrospective Study on 243 Consecutive Patients. International Journal of Medical Sciences 2012; 9(7): 539-44.

Yu Q, Liu Y, Chen X, Chen D, Xie L, Hong X, et al. Prevalence and associated factors for temporomandibular disorders in Chinese civilian pilots.

International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 2015; 88(7): 905-11.

Calderón CL, Layera LS, Núñez CV, Perez NS. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders before orthodontic treatment in a population of Santiago, Chile. Rev. Clin. Periodoncia Implantol. Rehabil. Oral 2018; 11(3): 160-3.

Ajanovic M, Bejtovic B. Correlation Between Values of the Helkimo Anamnestic and Clinical Dysfunction Index in Patients Suffering from Post

Traumatic Stress Disorder. Mater Sociomed 2009; 21(2): 85-91.

Nomura K, Vitri M, Oliveira AS, et al. Use the Fonseca’s questionnaire to assess the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders in

brazilian dental undergraduates. Braz Dent J. 2007;18(2):163-7.

Okeson JP. Joint intracapsular disorders: diagnostic and nonsurgical management considerations. Dent Clin North. 2007;51(1):85-103.

Pedroni CR, Oliveira SD, Guaratini MI. Prevalence study of temporomandibular disorders in university students. J Oral Rehabil. 2003;30

(3):283-9

Ahmed LI, Abuaffan AH. Prevalence of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders among Sudanese University Students. J Oral Hyg Health 2016; 4(2): 1-5.

Bonjardim LR, Gavião MB, Pereira LJ, Castelo PM, Garcia RC. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in adolescents. Brazilian Oral Research 2005; 19(2):93–8.

Aldhalai MA, Alyami YAS, Al Haider YMB, Aldhili MK, Alyami DAS, Alyami SAS, et al. Prevalence and Severity of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders among Populations in Najran Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. World J Dent 2017;8(2):90-5.

Bonjardim LR, Lopes-Filho RJ, Amado G, Albuquerque RL, Goncalves SR. Association between symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and

gender, morphological occlusion, and psychological factors in a group of university students. Indian J Dent Res 2009;20(2):190-4.

Aldridge RD, Fenlon MR. Prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction in a group of scuba divers. Br J Sports Med 2004;38(1):69–73.

Bezerra B, Ribeiro A, Farias A, Farias A, Fontes L, Nascimento S, et al. Prevalence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction and different levels of

anxiety among college students. Rev Dor. São Paulo 2012;13(3):235-42.

Boscato N, Almeida RC, Koller CD, Presta AA, Goettems ML. Influence of anxiety on temporomandibular disorders – an epidemiological survey with elders and adults in Southern Brazil. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2013 40(9); 643-49.

Al-Khotani A, Naimi-Akbar A, Albadawi E, Ernberg M, Hedenberg-Magnusson B, Christidis N. Prevalence of diagnosed temporomandibular

disorders among Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. The Journal of Headache and Pain 2016; 17: 41

Gesch D, Bernhardt O, Alte D, Schwahn C, Kocher T, John U et al. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in an

urban and rural German population: results of a population-based study of health in Pomerania. Quintessence Int. 2004;35(2):143-50.

Akhter R, Morita M, Ekuni D, Hassan NM, Furuta M, Yamanaka R, et al. Self-reported aural symptoms, headache and temporomandibular disorders in Japanese young adults. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2013;14(1): 1-7.

Adèrn B, Stenvinkel C, Sahlqvist L, Tegelberg Å. Prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction and pain in adult general practice patients. Acta

Odontologica Scandinavica 2014; 72(8): 585-90.

Vedolin GM, Lobato VV, Conti PC, Lauris JR. The impact of stress and anxiety on the pressure pain threshold of myofascial pain patients. J Oral Rehabil. 2009;36(5):313-21

Lora VR, Canales Gde L, Gonçalves LM, Meloto CB, Barbosa CM. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in postmenopausal women and relationship with pain and HRT. Braz Oral Res. 2016; 30(1): e100.

Casanova-Rosado JF, Medina-Solís CE, VallejosSánchez AA, Casanova-Rosado AJ, HernándezPrado B, Ávila-Burgos L. Prevalence and associated

factors for temporomandibular disorders in a group of Mexican adolescents and youth adults. Clin Oral Invest. 2005;10(1):42-9.

Agarwal K, Saha S, Sinha P. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders and its association with parafunctional habits among senior-secondary

school children of Lucknow, India. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2016;14(2):139-43.

Published
2021-07-30
How to Cite
Yousif, D., & Omer, Z. (2021). Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a sample of medical students in Erbil city. Erbil Dental Journal (EDJ), 4(1), 23-32. https://doi.org/10.15218/edj.2021.04
Section
Original Articles