Biocompatibility of new cement based capping material prepared from eggshell and biopolymer (chitosan).
Keywords:Egg shell, Biopolymer (chitosan), Biocompatibility, Capping material
Background and Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility of a newly prepared cement-based capping material made from eggshell and biopolymer (chitosan) with Mineral Trioxide Aggrigate MTA and Biodentine.
Methods: Fifteen male rabbits aged about 4-7 months of comparable weight more than 2.0 kg were selected. Animals were handled and maintained in accordance with international recommendations. The animals were divided into 3 groups, five rabbits for each group, for three time intervals (7, 14, and 21 days).Four specimens (4 mm long and 1 mm inner diameter) were inserted for each animal according to the following groups; Group 1: Empty pockets (control), Group 2: The Experimental material with a powder/liquid ratio of1 scoop: 8 drops by using glass slab with aid of cement metal spatula, Group 3: Mineral trioxide aggregate MTA which was mixed according to manufacturing instructions and Group 4: Biodentine which was mixed according to manufacturing instructions.
Results: The histological preparation in control group at 7 days time period demonstrated simple inflammatory reaction represented by slight looseness of the collagen fibers with increase the extracellular spaces between the fibers indicating mild edematous inflammation. For the Experimental group, MTA and Biodentine group there was great similarity in the tissue reaction when comparedwith control group. At 14 days time period, the edematous inflammatory reaction appeared to be reduced and the collagen fibers arranged closer to each other when compared with the previous time period this was the same for other the groups.At 21 days time period For control, Experimental, MTA and Biodentine group there were complete resolution of the edematous reaction with the formation of thick collagen bundles accompanied by typical fibroblast cells.
Conclusions: The implantation of the experimental material in the subcutaneous tissue of the rabbit’s back demonstrated very limited inflammatory reaction that didn’t differ from MTA and Biodentine group in all time intervals.
Selvakumar H, Kavitha S, Thomas E, Anadhan V, Vijayakumar R. Computed tomographic evaluation of K3 rotary and stainless steel K file instrumentation in primary teeth. J Clin Diag Res. 2016;10(1):5–8.
Abdul Karim JAR. Rotary systems versus manual k-file system in primary molar root canals - in vitro study. Int J Pediatr Dent. 2018; (2):115–20.
Kukreja P. Comparative evaluation of efficiency of three obturation techniques for primary incisors-an in vivo study. Int J Oral Health and Med Res. 2015;2(2):15–8.
Shah SS. Assessment of success of root canal therapy in primary molars. Int J Com Health and Med Res. 2017;3(1):7–10.
McCabe JF, Walls AWG. Applied dental materials. 8th edition. Oxford: Blackwell Pub. Co.; 2005. pp. 226–30
Hill EE. Dental cements for definitive luting: a review and practical clinical considerations. Dent Clin N Am. 2007;51(3):643–58.
Rosenstiel SF, Land MF, Crispin BJ. Dental luting agents: A review of the current literature. J Prosthet Dent. 1998;80(3):280–301.
Craig RG, Powers JM, Sakaguchi RL. Craig’s restorative dental materials. 12th ed. Las Vegas: Mosby; 2006. pp:480.
Torabinejad M, Watson TF, Pitt Ford TR. Sealing ability of a mineral trioxide aggregate when used as a root end filling material. J Endod. 1993;19(12):591–95.
Pitt Ford TR, Torabinejad M, Abedi HR, Bakland LK, Kariyawasam SP. Using mineral trioxide aggregate as a pulp capping material. J Am Dent Assoc. 1996;127(10):1491–94.
Arens DE, Torabinejad M. Repair of furcal perforations with mineral trioxide aggregate: two case reports. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1996;82(1):84–8.
Torabinajad M, Chivian N. Clinical applications of mineral trioxide aggregate. J Endod. 1999;25(3):197–205.
Torabinejad M, Hong CU, McDonald F, Pitt Ford TR. Physical and chemical properties of a new root-end filling material. J Endod. 1995;21(7):349–53.
SeptodontBiodentine™ Active Biosilicate Technology™ Scientific file 2010.
Engin B, Demirtas H, Ekan M. Temperature effects on egg shells investigated by XRD, IR and ESR techniques. J RadiatPhys Chem. 2006;75:268–77.
Salman RF, Al-Khafaji A. Evaluation and assessment of new restorative material (polyphosphonate glass ionomer). PhD thesis, University of Baghdad; 2006.
El-Hefian EA, El-Gannoudi ES, Mainal A, Yahya AH. Characterization of chitosan in acetic acid: Rheological and thermal studies. Turk J Chem. 2010;34:47–56.
Al-Khalidi EF, Al-Salman TH, Taqa AA. Preparation and evaluation of a new calcium based cement. PhD thesis, University of Mosul; 2015.
Suvarna SK, Layton C, Bancroft JD. Bancroft’s Theoty and Practice of Histopathological Techniques. 6th edition. Churchill Livingstone, UK; 2008.
Martinez Lalis R, Esain ML, Kokubu GA, Willis J, Chaves C, Grana DR. Rat subcutaneous tissue response to modified Portland cement, a new mineral trioxide aggregate. Braz Dent J. 2009;20:112–7.
Aminozarbian MG, Barati M, Salehi I, Mousavi SB. Biocompatibility of mineral trioxide aggregate and three new endodontic cements: An animal study. Den Res J. 2012; 9(1):54–9.
Amin BK. Evaluation the effect of adding chitosan material on calcium enriched mixture (invitro and invivo study). Ph.D. thesis. College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University; 2014.
Sunnegårdh-Grönberg K. Calcium Aluminate Cement as Dental Restorative. Mechanical Properties and Clinical Durability. Umeå, Sweden: Umeå University Odontological Dissertations; 2004.
Lawrence WH, Malik M, Autian J. Development of a toxicity evaluation program for dental materials and products. II. Screening for systemic toxicity. J Biomed Mater Res. 1974;8:11–34.
Camps J, About I. Cytotoxicity testing of endodontic sealers: A new method. J Endod. 2003;29:5836.
Recommended standard practices for biological evaluation of dental materials. Federation Dentaire International, Commission of Dental Materials, Instruments, Equipment and Therapeutics. Int Dent J. 1980;30:140–88.
Geneva. 1994. Organization IS. ISO 10993-6(F)-07-15. Biological evaluation of medical devices. Part 6. Tests for local effects after implantation. CP56. CH1211.
McNamara RP, Henry MA, Schindler WG, Hargreaves KM. Biocompatibility of accelerated mineral trioxide aggregate in a rat model. J Endod. 2010;36:1851–5.
Yavari H, Shahi SH, Rahimi S, Shakouhi SL. Connective tissue reaction to white and gray MTA mixed with distilled water or chlorhexidine in rats. Iranian Endodontic Journal. 2009;4:25–30.
Yaltirik M, Ozbas H, Bilgic B, Issever H. Reactions of connective tissue to mineral trioxide aggregate and amalgam. J Endod. 2004;30:95–9.
Zmener O, Guglielmotti MB, Cabrini RL. Tissue response to an experimental calcium hydroxidebased endodontic sealer: A quantitative study in subcutaneous connective tissue of the rat. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1990;6:66–72.
Torabinejad M, Hong CU, Lee SJ, Monsef M, Pitt Ford TR. Investigation of mineral trioxide aggregate for root-end filling in dogs. J Endod. 1995;21:603–8.
Fernandez-Yanez Sanchez A, Leco-Berrocal MI, Martinez-Gonzalez JM. Metaanalysis of filler materials in periapical surgery. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2008;13:E180–5.
Holland R, de Souza V, Nery MJ, Faraco Junior IM, Bernabe PF, Otoboni Filho JA, et al. Reaction of rat connective tissue to implanted dentin tube filled with mineral trioxide aggregate, Portland cement or calcium hydroxide. Braz Dent J. 2001;12:3–8.
Yasuda Y, Ogawa M, Arakawa T, Kadowaki T, Saito T. The effect of mineral trioxide aggregate on the mineralization ability of rat pulp cells. J Endod, 2008;34:1057–60.
Mohammadian M, Jafarzadeh-Kashi TS. In Vitro Comparison of Coronal Micro-leakage of Three Temporary Restorative Materials by Dye Penetration. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2013;15(1):24–27.
Xie D, Brantley WA, Culbertson BM, Wang D. Mechanical properties and microstructures of glassionomer cements. Dent Mater. 2000;16:129–38.
Yaltirik M, Ozbas H, Bilgic B, Issever H. Reactions of Connective Tissue to Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Amalgam. J Endod. 2004;30:95–9.
Danesh F, Tootian Z, Jahanbani J, Rabiee M, Fazelipour S, Taghva O, Shabaninia S. Biocompatibility and Mineralization Activity of Fresh or Set White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Biomimetic Carbonated apatite and synthetic hydroxyapatite. J Endod. 2010;36:1036–41.
Zmener O, Lalis RM, Pameijer CH, Chaves C, Kokubu G, Grana D. Reaction of Rat Subcutaneous Connective Tissue to a Mineral Trioxide Aggregate–based and a Zinc Oxide and Eugenol Sealer. J Endod. 2012;38:1233–8.
Ghoddusi J, Afshari JT, Donyavi Z, Brook A, Disfani R, Esmaeelzadeh M. Cytotoxic effect of a new endodontic cement and mineral trioxide aggregate on L929 line culture. Iranian Endodontic Journal. 2008;3:17–23.
Asgary S. Furcal perforation repair using calcium enriched mixture cement. J Conser Den. 2010;13(3)156–8.
Aguilar FG, Garcia LF, de-Souza FC. Biocompatibility of New Calcium Aluminate Cement (EndoBinder). J Endod. 2012;38:367–71.
Garcia LF, Marques AA, Roselino LM, de-Souza FC, Consani S. Biocompatibility Evaluation of Epiphany/Resilon Root Canal Filling System in Subcutaneous Tissue of Rats. J Endod. 2010;36:110–4.
VandeVord PJ, Matthew HW, DeSilva SP, Mayton L, Wu B, Wooley PH. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of a chitosan scaffold in mice. J Biomed Mater Res. 2002;59:585–90.
Okamoto Y, Minami S, Matsuhashi A, Sashiwa H, Saimoto H, Shigemasa Y, et al. Polymeric Nacetyl-D-glucosamine (chitin) induces histionic activation in dogs. J Vet Med Sci. 1993;55:739–42.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Hemn M. Sarmamy, Dara H. Saeed (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The copyright on any article published in Erbil Dental Journal is retained by the author(s) in agreement with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial ShareAlike License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).