Prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders Among Dental Students of College of Dentistry-Hawler Medical University.


  • Saeed Hameed Tutmayi Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Twana Hoshyar Saleem Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University.
  • Sara Aswad Khoshnaw Undergraduate Student at the College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University.
  • Sana Khals Hamad Undergraduate Student at the College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University.
  • Sonya Nadir Saeed Undergraduate Student at the College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University.



Temporomandibular disorder, Temporomandibular joint, Fonseca's questionnaire


Background: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a group of conditions affecting the jaw joint and the muscles that control jaw movement, can cause pain and discomfort in the jaw, face, and neck, and affect a person's ability to speak, chew, and swallow.

Aim: The present study aims to specify the prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorder among dental students of Hawler Medical University.

Method: The research conducted involved a group of 120 dental students, with an equal number of males and females from Hawler Medical University. The required data were collected by developing a particular questionnaire by modifying Fonseca's questionnaire. The study was performed during a period of one month from January to February. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to determine the severity of the pain and dysfunction in the participant's muscles.

Results: More than 75% of the participants had no deviation. In 65.8% of the students, class 1 occlusion was observed. Trauma was observed in just 12.5% of the participants. Bite and bruxism habits were observed in 24.2% and 10% of the students respectively. Moreover, 30% of students had disturbed sleep. Severe TMJ pain was reported in 4.2% and 0.8% of females and males respectively.

Conclusion: The occurrence of TMD among males was less than among females. Most of the participants had mild TMJ pain. There was a significant association between symptoms of TMD and para-functional habits.


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How to Cite

Tutmayi SH, Saleem TH, Khoshnaw SA, Hamad SK, Saeed SN. Prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders Among Dental Students of College of Dentistry-Hawler Medical University. EDJ [Internet]. 2024 Mar. 28 [cited 2024 Apr. 20];6(3):302-9. Available from:



Original Articles