The effect of two commonly consumed energy drinks on the bond strength of conventional and APC® brackets

An in vitro study


  • Saya Mustafa Azeez P.O.P Department, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University
  • Omar Fawzi Chawshli P.O.P Department, College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University



Energy drinks, shear bond strength;, adhesive remnant index


Background and Objective: One of the common problems during orthodontic treatment is a bond failure, which interferes with treatment course and results in increased treatment duration and more clinical time for rebonding of failed brackets. This study aimed to determine the effect of energy drinks on the shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index on two types of orthodontic metal brackets.

Materials and Methods: Sixty sound human premolars were divided into two groups of conventional and APC® brackets, and each group had three subgroups of control (artificial saliva), Wild Tiger and Red Bull storage. The test subgroups were immersed in the energy drinks for 5 minutes, twice a day for 30 days. Universal Testing Machine was used to measure the shear bond strength. Stereomicroscope was used to determine the adhesive remnant index at x20 magnification. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the bond strength data; the Kruskal-Wallis test evaluated the adhesive remnant index score.

Results: Significant difference was observed in the shear bond strength of both groups and within the subgroups (P ≤ 0.05). The bond strength of Red Bull subgroup was significantly lower than the other two subgroups in both groups. Regarding the adhesive remnant index, the conventional bracket subgroup had a failure at bracket-adhesive interface while APC® bracket subgroup had failure at the enamel-adhesive interface.

Conclusion: Energy drinks reduced the bond strength of both types of orthodontic metal brackets.


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How to Cite

Azeez SM, Chawshli OF. The effect of two commonly consumed energy drinks on the bond strength of conventional and APC® brackets: An in vitro study. EDJ [Internet]. 2019 Dec. 6 [cited 2024 Jul. 25];2(2):251-9. Available from:



Original Articles